Substantive (Two Initial Passes)

  • Clarifying or reorganizing manuscript for content and structure
  • Writing original material
  • Negotiating changes with author
  • Verifying proper documentation of resources
  • Clarifying meaning, eliminating jargon, polishing language

Line/Copy (Two Additional Passes)

  • Editing for grammar, usage, spelling, punctuation, and other mechanics
  • Checking for consistency of mechanics
  • Notifying designer of any unusual production requirements
  • Editing preface or foreword

Proofreading (review proof copy before mass printing)

  • Checking proof of formatted, edited material for adherence to design and for minor, mechanical errors in copy
  • Verifying proper layout and that pages are numbered appropriately